This paper presents a study analyzing the perception of artistic products created by or with the support of artificial intelligence (AI). The research builds on previous studies revealing that the output of artificial creativity processes can indeed rival human-made products, satisfy consumer expectations, and derive enjoyment. However, in contrast to earlier works, the study focuses on the awareness of how AI is used during production processes (full automation, human-AI co-creation, and solely human) and product types (levels of involvement and product tangibility). A laboratory experiment was conducted to compare the value and creativity perceptions of 199 participants. Results revealed that, overall, the use of AI enhanced perceptions of process novelty. Additionally, the use of AI led to more positive evaluations of intangible and high involvement products such as songs compared to tangible and high involvement products such as paintings. This shows a decrease in perceived quality as more AI is involved in the production process. Furthermore, the level of product involvement level indicated no causal relationship to the degree of AI used in the production process.

COMMENTARY: Applying artificial intelligence (AI) to generate creative and valuable outputs is far from a novel concept (Boden, 1998; Cope, 1989). However, only in recent years have we witnessed large scale release and adoption of AI tools capable of generating high-quality content in written, image, video, and sound formats (Anantrasirichai & Bull, 2022). The fast adoption of these tools, and the autonomous nature of the process that generates such outputs, challenges well-rooted paradigms, especially in creative sectors such as the arts. As consequence, it calls for a discussion and reconsideration of existing concepts and assumptions.

Artificial intelligence (AI) has reached creative industries such as music. Algorithms now produce high-quality artistic content (e.g. original songs), for hedonic consumption and utilitarian business applications. This paper aims to address the resulting research gap by investigating listeners’ perceptions towards music composed by AI. First, an online survey was conducted with 446 respondents and compared perceptions of music professionals (n = 72) and non-professional listeners (n = 374). Following this, a 2 × 2 laboratory experiment was conducted, where 86 participants listened to songs composed by AI but were presented different narratives regarding the composition process (human versus AI). Overall, results from the online survey indicated a rather negative perception, low purchase intention for AI music and a negative credibility perception of musicians using AI. Findings from the experiment indicated no significant differences between the groups, suggesting that the awareness of the use of automation did not influence the perception towards the music.

Cover page of the Live FM: Fan Monitor report
Cover page of the 2022 Live FM Fan Monitor report by Francisco Tigre Moura
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